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Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Construction of Precast Filigran Slab at a Glance


1.0 Introduction to filigran slab system
Filigran slab is a universal system of reinforced concrete slab, that is used all over the world. This is due to their excellent structural solutions in the prefabricated construction method adapted to industrial, residential, and other special structures. Filigran slabs are prefabricated in the factory and are made up of thin reinforced concrete slabs, which are part of the complete reinforced concrete floor, and have a thickness between 40mm – 75mm.

See a picture of a finished filigran slab below;


Due to transportation (the maximum permissible width of a moving vehicle during transportation), the recommended width is between 0.60m to 2.50m. The maximum recommended width of each precast panel is 2.70m, and the length may be as high as 12.00m. Each filigran slab has main reinforcements in the transverse and longitudinal directions (based on applied loading and design), and lattice girder trusses spaced at not more than 750mm and placed parallel to the longer side. After they are casted and installed, the final in-situ concrete topping (not less than 120mm) is used to finish the slab to required final design thickness.

During the industrial fabrication of precast filigran slabs, all recesses, ceiling apertures, electrical sockets etc are taken into account. The prefabricated slab acts as a shuttering (soffit formwork) during the building phase, and after the addition and hardening of the in-situ concrete, the whole system effectively becomes a single slab.
A typical complete arrangement of a filigran slab is shown in the picture below;


Where;
(1) In-situ concrete topping/overlay
(2) Prefabricated plate
(3) Panel joint reinforcement
(4) Lattice girder trusses
See more typical arrangement of reinforcements and lattice girder trusses after the cut




1.1 In-situ topping/overlay
The fusion of the two layers of the concrete, (precast and monolithic cast in-situ) are done after the precast filigree slab are installed in place. The surface of the prefabricated panels should be made rough so as to facilitate adequate bonding with the cast in-situ slab. The steel trusses included in the panels are suitable motherboard for rigidity during lifting, transportation, and performance of the floor. The diagonals of the lattice truss girder serve to accept the thrust in the joint between the precast panel and the in-situ concrete, while the upper booms and diagonals serve to provide the stiffness necessary during assembly.


1.2 Work placement of filigran slab
Panels are transported to the building in accordance with draft assembly drawings. Project cost and transport cost are included in the total cost of the floor. Before installation, there is need to prepare a support/mounting place, to place them in the required panel, and in the designed level. The necessary supports (props, joints) are indicated by the designer. The permissible moments and lateral forces are independent of the girder diameters and the assembly height of the lattice girders. The thickness of the precast slab and the diagonal diameter of the lattice girders determine the bending capacity as well as the lateral load capacity. In addition to the net weight of the ceiling, assembly loads of 1.5KN/m2 or 1.5kN (under the most unfavourable conditions) are taken into account.

1.3 Unloading filigran slab
Filigran slabs are generally unloaded from the truck by a building site crane. The slab weighs approximately 125kg/m2 (standard thickness). The karabiners are hooked into the diagonals of the truss lattice girder, not into the upper boom. Stabilizing suspension gear should be used while lifting the filigran slab. The stabilizing suspension gear of steel cables or chains should be used to guarantee equally distributed loading of the dead weight on the lattice girders. In either case, the spacing of the suspension gear from the end of the lattice slab should be approximately 1/5 of the total length of the slab.


1.4 Reinforcing across the joints
Joint reinforcement between the slabs is guaranteed either in the form of reinforcing steel mesh or individual reinforcing rods. The dimensions of the reinforcing rods are stated in the installation plan. The joint reinforcement must go beyond the butt of the plates by at least 500mm in the installation plan. The reinforcement prevents dowelling, or uneven deformation of the individual pieces of the ceiling.

1.5 Preparation for concreting
Before the in-situ concrete is added, the following must be checked whether:
1. The slab has been laid properly. It is imperative to note that the main reinforcements are parallel to the long span in the panel, but during placement, they are placed parallel to the short span.
2.The precast slabs are supported and should be lying horizontally.
3.The edges of the slab are completely level along the entire length of the joints on the underside.
4.The reinforcement over the joints, the additional top reinforcement bars as well as services has been laid.


Advantages of filigran slab
1.High accuracy and smoothness of floor eliminates the need for plastering.
2.Strength of plates adapt to the individual changes, in accordance with the terms of use of the ceiling.
3.The production of the plate for the construction requires minimum formwork.
4.Simple and short construction period
5.Reduction on the amount of workers needed for the preparation of floor.
6.Filigran slab saves materials cost and labour charges for scaffolding and formwork.
7.Filigree slabs are light weighted and easy to handle and fix.
8.Recesses for electrical and plumbing installations are made at the pre-production stage itself.

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